P&IDs show the interconnectivity and flow of process piping.  Piping is used to convey anything that can flow: liquids, gases and/or solids from one location to another. It has been used to do so in one form or another for over two thousand years.

Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from wood, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic and concrete. The in-line components typically sense and control pressure, flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included when one discusses the concept of piping design. Process piping is not what you see under your sink.

"Plumbing" is the form of piping that most non-technical people are familiar with, as it constitutes the form of transportation that is used to provide liquids (water) and gases (natural gas used for heating and cooking, for example) to their homes. Piping also removes waste from the household in the form of drainage.

Piping also has innumerable other industrial applications, which are crucial for moving raw and semi-processed fluids for refining into more useful products. Some of the more exotic materials of construction are titanium, chrome-moly and various other steel alloys. Typical process piping sizes range from 1/2" to 30" in diameter. The engineering discipline of piping design is that which gets the fluid to where you need it, whether it is water, gasoline, hydrogen, fuel oil, or any other flowing medium you can think of.

Process piping consists of primary (or main or major), secondary (or minor) and utility pipes.  Primary lines indicate pipe carrying a process (or product or commodity).  The major processes are determined from the associated PFDs.  Plant utilities include Water/Steam, Sewage, Electric and Air.  The links below explain process piping in great detail.

 

 

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Text Box: P&IDs—From The Drafter’s Perspective
Guide To Drafting Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

P&ID Components—Process Piping

P&IDs - From The Drafter’s Perspective—Guide for Drafting Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

Links to Piping Line Format for P&ID Drawings

 

PIP Example   Go To Sht. 5, Section 4.2.1.5 & Sht. 6, Section 4.2.3.1 & Sht. 9, Section 4.4

 

AA Standard   Go To Sht. 2, Section 2.3

 

P&ID Standard Notations  Scroll To Line Symbols Section

 

Line Widths  Go To Sht. 6— Paragraph 4

 

Cheat Sheet Tips

 

Line Conventions 

 

Introduction To Line Numbers

 

About Line Numbers

 

Where Do Line Numbers Change?

 

Line Designations—Detailed Descriptions

 

Piping Line List

 

 

Links To Information on Pipe Codes and Standards

 

Piping Service Classes

 

ASME B31.1 Power Piping  Article

 

ASME B31.3 Process Piping

 

ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids  Article

 

Pipe Codes and Standards—American, British and Indian

 

Design Codes 

 

 

Links to Process Piping Information

 

Definitions and Details of Pipe

 

What is a Refinery? 

 

Key Facts on Process Piping Design

 

Engineering Fluid Diagrams and Prints—Piping Systems 

 

PFD & P&ID Diagrams  Go To Sht. 3 Section E

 

PME Primary/Secondary Piping  Article

 

Beyond Primary/Secondary Piping  Presentation

 

Flexible Piping Systems 

 

Piping—Definition

 

Design Codes—Pipework—Article

 

Refinery Process Descriptions—Documentation

 

Petroleum Refinery—Description

 

Plumbing Design Considerations—Applies To Process Piping Engineering

 

Piping Systems  Go To Sht. 59 & 78

 

Pipe Engineering  Go To Sht. 4

 

Different Piping Arrangements  Article

 

What is a Pipe Rack?

 

Pipeline Design  Article

 

How To Become A Piping Designer

 

Industrial Pipe Racks and Process Design Piping  Video

 

Pipe and Tube Information  Go To Sht. 11

 

Process Control Fundamentals

Disclaimer:  The web has been scoured to provide as much information about P&IDs as possible on this site.  This information comes from many sources and many different countries.  Reviewing it all will increase a person’s knowledge but it is the reader’s responsibility to insure that the information contained herein is verified by proper authorities as valid for use in any intended application.

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